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We have invested time in understanding and defining the core problems and causes of those problems which impact our operations and our clients businesses. Using definitions allows us to tackle the creation of solutions in a structured, reliable way, while also giving us the agility to identify deviations from expected and unknowns much faster. This keeps us ahead of the game.

An inexhaustive collection of our definitions follows.


“PAEI is publicly available electronic information, where ‘public’ is defined as information published in HTML, PDF or other common formats on the internet, and which can be gathered lawfully and ethically by a person or algorithm using the internet, or via Application Programming Interface (API) queries made to third-party platform providers.”


Optimism Bias

"The belief a person or group of people is less likely to experience a negative event or outcome."

Positive Illusion

"Unrealistically favourable assessments of and attitudes towards the situation faced or the people around you."

Illusory Superiority

"The overestimation of personal or group qualities and abilities."

Normalcy Bias

"The disbelief or minimisation of risk, threat, and warning leading to an inability to perceive or foresee adverse impacts and a rejection of even obvious probabilities of negative outcomes."


“A malicious insider threat is a person who intentionally exploits their position or privileged access to systems or information for unauthorised purposes or personal gain ; A negligent insider threat is a person with privileged access to systems or information who exposes those systems or information to unauthorised access due to poor security practices or their own careless or reckless actions; An unintended insider threat is a person with privileged access to systems or information who exposes those systems or information to unauthorised access as a result of events beyond their reasonable control.”


"1. A hybrid societal threat is:

a) The actual or attempted use, encouragement, incitement, co-ordination, or support;

b) of internationally recognisable unlawful violence, intimidation, bribery or blackmail, or unconsented psychological manipulation by any means;

c) planned, controlled, and carried out by individuals or groups anywhere in the world;

d) acting in pursuit of changes to policy and legislation; or acting to interfere in, disrupt, or influence democratic processes; or acting to achieve political or ideological aims; or acting to cause disruption to the daily life of a population or part of a population, or expose that population or part of a population to risk of harm.

e) an attempt for the purposes of this section is any act which is more than merely preparatory and applies even where the attempted act is impossible.

f) "internationally recognisable" for the purpose of this section means the act must be identifiable as unlawful in the eyes of any reasonable person, for example: murder, the use of improvised explosive devices in civilian areas, physical violence or armed threats.

2. A hybrid societal threat is not:

a) Internationally recognisable political opposition; organised or spontaneous peaceful protest without violence; public outcry or open criticism of a government's actions; a grassroots, charity-led, or other peaceful campaign carried out within a framework of internationally recognisable rules and regulations."